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Network Basics: Network Layers
Computers on a network communicate in agreed upon ways called protocols. The complexity of networking
protocol software calls for the problem to be divided into smaller pieces. A layering model aids this
division and provides the conceptual basis for understanding how software protocols together with hardware
devices provide a powerful communication system.
In the early days of networking, before the rise of the ubiquitous Internet, the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) developed a layering model whose terminology persists today.
The 7-layer model has been revised to the 5-layer TCP/IP reference model to meet the current needs of
ISO 7-Layer Reference Model:
- Layer 7: Application - Specifies how a particular application uses a network
- Layer 6: Presentation - Specifies how to represent data
- Layer 5: Session - Specifies how to establish communication with a remote system
- Layer 4: Transport - Specifies how to reliably handle data transfer
- Layer 3: Network - Specifies addressing assignments and how packets are forwarded
- Layer 2: Data Link - Specifies the organization of data into frames and how to send frames over a network
- Layer 1: Physical - Specifies the basic network hardware
TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model:
- Layer 5 Application - Specifies how a particular application uses a network
- Layer 4 Transport - Specifies how to ensure reliable transport of data
- Layer 3 Internet - Specifies packet format and routing
- Layer 2 Network - Specifies frame organization and transmittal
- Layer 1 Physical - Specifies the basic network hardware
TCP/IP Protocol Stack
TCP/IP is the protocol suite upon which all Internet communication is based. Different vendors have
developed other networking protocols, but even most network operating systems with their own protocols,
such as Netware, support TCP/IP. It has become the de facto standard.
Protocols are sometimes referred to as protocol stacks or protocol suites. A protocol stack is an appropriate
term because it indicates the layered approach used to design the networking software.
Each host or router in the internet must run a protocol stack. The details of the underlying physical connections
are hidden by the software. The sending software at each layer communicates with the corresponding
layer at the receiving side through information stored in headers. Each layer adds its header to the front of
the message from the next higher layer. The header is removed by the corresponding layer on the receiving
This chapter discusses the protocols available in the TCP/IP protocol suite. The following figure shows
how they correspond to the 5-layer TCP/IP Reference Model. This is not a perfect one-to-one correspondence;
for instance, Internet Protocol (IP) uses the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), but is shown here
at the same layer in the stack.